PAL Robotics has been developing robotic platforms for research since 2004. Its main developments include the two humanoid robots REEM and REEM-C, and TIAGo inherits all the technology and robustness resulting from years of development and extensive use of the robots. PAL Robotics designs all the mechanics and electronics of its robots in a modular way, integrating high quality components like Harmonic Drive reducers in the arm motors and CAN bus for communication between electronic components. The CAN bus is more robust than other buses like RS-485 as it includes the data link layer of the OSI model and handles better faults and collisions.

PAL Robotics provides more than just a hardware platform. The company is integrating all its software in ROS since 2011. Building blocks of software and comprehensive documentation is provided to the customers in order to start working with the robots and obtaining results in a short time. Furthermore, for those who want low level access to the hardware, support is provided in order to do so. Software packages including autonomous navigation, perception, manipulation and HRI are provided.

In order to enlarge the lifetime of our robots PAL Robotics provides extended warranty options and maintenance plans.

TIAGo has a CAN bus for communication between the electronic components. The CAN bus is more robust than other buses like RS-485 as it includes the data link layer of the OSI model and handles better faults and collisions.

Yes, TIAGo’s simulation is open-source and available for everyone. In order to use the public simulation model for Gazebo follow the instructions in http://wiki.ros.org/Robots/TIAGo.
We make a great effort on keeping our simulators up to date and having them work accurately, allowing for a very easy transition from simulation to the robot.

Yes, we have gone even further and have included the university discount already in the price of TIAGo, so we are providing university pricing for this platform.

Yes. Please contact our team at tiago@pal-robotics.com and we will help you along the purchase

Yes. We offer different upgrade kits so that you may ship your platform back to us whenever you want and we can transform it to any other TIAGo configuration.

We have a long history working with universities and understand that some of the budget might be available at different moments in time, we can adapt to this situation and offer upgrades on your PMB2 or Tiago platform..

The robot is provided with a comprehensive list of software described here. Optional software packages can be obtained in order to get the most out of the robot, see here the list.

The arm is composed of the following motors:

  • 4x M90 modules. This self-contained hollow-shaft modules contain brushless DC motors with absolute encoders, integrated power and control electronics and Harmonic Drive reductions. The firmware of the electronic boards implement control PIDs for position, velocity and torque.

  • 1x M3D wrist with 3 DoF made of 3 brushed DC motors with absolute encoders and custom electronic boards. The embedded electronics provide control PIDs for position and velocity.

All the actuators of the arm use CAN-bus for communications. Furthermore, the modules and the wrist include a wide variety of self protection mechanisms (over-temperature, over-current, under-voltage, over-voltage, …).

The arm modules max speed is 100º/s.

The different motors of the robot can be controlled using ROS interfaces. All the controllers provided are implemented as plugins of ros_control and are contained in ros_controllers. All the controllers run in the real-time control loop and have access to the full robot hardware interfaces exposed by ros_control. The motors of TIAGo can be controlled in the following modes:

  • The wheels of the mobile base can be controlled through velocity mode.

  • The motor of the lifting torso and the two motors of the head can be controlled in position mode.

Finally, the motors of the arm can be controlled in position and in effort mode.

Yes. The user only needs to create ros_control plugins to implement new controllers and add them to the ros_controllers or replace the desired ones. The new controllers will run in the real-time control loop and will have access to the full robot hardware interfaces exposed by ros_control.

Yes. Compliance in TIAGo’s arm is achieved by using two mechanisms:

  • Sensorless torque control: open-loop torque references are commanded. This is based on feedforward current control which is achieved thanks to the accurate model of the arm dynamics including mechanics, electronics cabling and covers and the low friction of the joints. This results in a high acceptable force control in the operational space.

Admittance control: using the data from the force/torque sensor of the wrist, positions can be commanded taking external forces into account obtaining even much better results than when using sensorless torque control.

Yes. More specifically, an effort control API is provided.

Yes. Thanks to the sensorless torque current control this option is provided with the robot for free. Furthermore, an online control switch is implemented, allowing the user to switch between different control modes instantly.

We integrate a 6-axis ATI mini-45 force/torque sensor.

From a user point of view the Whole Body Control software package enables easy and safe commanding of the end effector of the robot by just specifying where you want it to be in real world coordinates.

The Whole Body Control software package is a quadratic hierarchical solver working at 200 Hz implemented by PAL Robotics providing on-line inverse kinematics of the whole robot upper body (7 DoF arm, 2 DoF head and torso prismatic joint). The solver is given a stack of tasks with different priorities. An example of stack of task is the following one:

 faq1

In this example, the Whole Body Controller is able to bring the end-effector to any desired pose in the cartesian space and to keep the gaze of the robot towards a desired point (this could be the user defined tasks) and the solutions to accomplish these lower priority tasks would always avoid joints limits and prevent self-collisions (these higher priority tasks would be included for safety).

Note that standard inverse kinematics solvers are not able to deal with joint limit and self-collisions avoidance, which are of key importance when commanding the robot.

The driver of the robot is written all as Orocos components. The ros_control architecture gives easy access to the hardware using standard ROS interfaces. The interface to the robot hardware are simple Orocos ports that have vector message types corresponding to each joint, to command position, velocity, current or read the mentioned values. If you don’t want to use ros_control you can always connect directly to these ports.

Yes. They use the same mounting connector and the same interface.The process for interchanging the end effectors in TIAGo is very easy and fast

Yes. Both the parallel gripper and the 5-finger hand (hey5) can detect when an object is grasped by monitoring the current consumption of its motors. Furthermore, the hey5 hand is underactuated, it has 19 degrees of freedom and 3 motors, so that it adapts to the shape of the objects.Thanks to the 6-axis force/torque sensor on the wrist, forces and motions in manipulation tasks can be precisely controlled.

Two ways of integrating third-party end-effector are possible:

  • Integration of a CANopen end-effector: the wrist exposes a CAN bus connector and PAL provides the drawings of the mounting part. Then, the customer can design the required mechanical part to attach the end-effector to the wrist and connect to the bus.

  • Integration of an end-effector using another communication bus: in this case the customer can design the mechanical part to attach the end-effector to the wrist and use external cabling to connect to one of the ports provided in the laptop tray user panel (i.e. 1x USB 2.0, 1x USB 3.0 and 2x GigE ports) and the power supply (12 V, 5 A).

Furthermore, PAL Robotics offers customization and integration services to help the customer to integrate other end-effectors.

Meet TIAGo in the following videos:

TIAGo uses the PMB-2 mobile base. Customers may acquire a PMB-2 and later on ask PAL Robotics to evolve it to any other robot configuration, i.e. Iron, Steel or Titanium.

The hey5 hand performs best in Human-Robot Interaction tasks, like hand shaking, and grasping deformable objects.

The modules of the arm have absolute 12-bit encoders and high quality Harmonic Drive reducers with 0 backlash and low friction which provide an accuracy of 0.087º.

All the joints have motor side incremental and link side absolute encoders.

Depending on the activity the robot has 4-5 hours of autonomy with one battery and 6-10 hours with 2 batteries.

Yes.

TIAGo comes with one language and one voice that can be selected from this list. Additional languages or voices can be added under customer demand.

The robot has 1 year warranty on hardware. An additional 12 months of warranty extension is offered as an option.

Yes. They use the same mounting connector and the same interface.The process for interchanging the end effectors in TIAGo is very easy and fast.

TIAGo has a CAN bus for communication between the electronic components. The CAN bus is more robust than other buses like RS-485 as it includes the data link layer of the OSI model and handles better faults and collisions.

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